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  Home > History > Operation Shingle > The minesweepers > USS Swerve > The facts > The dive > References


  • Harry Sonner, 3° class signalman, veteran of USS Swerve and survivor to the sinking.
  • Amerigo Salvini, for his contribution on the research on the Operation Shingle.
  • Anzio Beachhead Research and Documentation Center.
  • Marco Bellosi, Alberto and Ezio Ruberto for thei support in the research and identification of the USS Swerve.
  • Naval Historical Center, Washington Underwater Archaeology Branch.
  • Naval Mine Warfare Association and the historician Joseph F. Schreiber Jr. for the material on the minesweeping methods.
  • U.S. Naval Institute Photo Archives ( for the prints of minesweeper.
  • Alessandro Fornai and Cristina Nicolai for the support during the dive.


  • Samuel Eliot Morison, Hystory of US Naval operations in World War II: Sicily-Salerno-Anzio. Vol. IX. Little Brown & co. Boston, 1954.
  • Arnold S. Scott, Most Dangerous Sea, US Naval Institute, Annapolis. Maryland.
  • Harry Sonner, USS Swerve AM 121, That fateful day, The Silent Defenders, Spring 1999.
  • Naval Historical Center, Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, volume 6.